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35MM PROJECTORS

THIS PAGE COVERS VARIOUS 35MM MACHINES AND TOPICS. SPECIFIC MACHINES WHERE I HAVE A LOT OF

MATERIAL ARE GIVEN THEIR OWN PAGE, SO FAR THE EDUCATOR AND THE COSMOGRAPH

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This pi35mm-pixcture is a bit old, dating back to 1997, in an issue of Image Technology. This is the Journal of the BKSTS (British Kinematograph, Sound and Television Society). Putting three digital sound systems on the same film with the analogue track was then seen as simply a technical possibility, possible because all three used different areas of the film.

The analogue track has come a long way from the early days, with twin tracks for stereo and companies like Dolby squeezing surround sound and other effects from it. The DTS system, as I understand it, simply provides a time code to a sound unit playing the equivalent of a CD. This has the advantage that you just change the CD to change the language the audience hear. Film breaks don't matter as the coded signal simply shifts the CD on to the correct place. The Dolby SRD system I find particularly fascinating, as it breaks away completely from the linear, analogue approach, by placing the digital soundtrack information in separate "packets" between the sprocket holes. This really exploits the possibilities of digital, allowing discontinuous info to be processed to create a continuous soundtrack. I once attended a talk by a Dolby engineer, who said that they had found that the inter-sprocket area was very little affected by wear, except right in the centre of the "packet". So they didn't use that bit for soundtrack info, but put the Dolby double-D logo there instead. Now that I call inspired, tho' I don't know if they still do it. I don't know anything about the SDDS system, tho' it looks like digital info in a conventional linear form.

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This is a drawing I found (probably from BKSTS) with the dimensions of a TODD-AO projection print. I love this sort of detailed stuff. Huge amounts of it, of course, on that series of big posters BKSTS did on film gauges, colour systems etc some years back. I also have a bad copy of an article by Grant Lobban MBKS from the BKSTS, called 35mm Release Print Formats. This dates from 1970 and was 8 then. I don't know where I got it or why anybody bothered copying it, because without top quality pix it's useless, but if you're into this kinda thing, it looks fascinating.

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I always used to wonder why they couldn't make 35mm projectors that were only a bit bigger than 16mm instead of unbelievably heavy and cumbersome. As my projection facility is in the loft and I have too much stuff, size and weight are serious considerations. Eventually I found one; I have seen others, too, so it obviously can be done.

The best that used to be available was the GBN, (pic 1 below), immensely heavy and limited capacity.

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Pix 2 & 3 - dunno name. 3 - 6 pix are Microcine; the innards are interesting - everything is driven by toothed belts. The fans for cooling the Xenon lamp and its power supply (which is integral) are just standard 80mm mains-operated computer case fans. (See the Microcine website; link in Miscellany).

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I found these three pictures on eBay. The machine is called a Kinelite - from the back view it seems to be a fairly stripped-down machine - but still pretty compact.Couple more for you, an Oxford and an unidentified. The latter seems very reminiscent of the Chinese-made Spectra (see below). The Oxford has the same basic layout as the DeVry.

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These four are of a Spectra. This was a Chinese machine, imported into the UK by some British company. The range included a pair of these, complete with stands, 1000 watt Xenons, a single power supply or "ballast" cum changeover unit (which weighed more than the machine itself - old technology), an amplifier, a pair of rewind arms and a tape splicer. They were aimed at cine clubs and similar. Spool capacity was only 2000ft, so changeover operation was needed, and operators had to have a degree of skill. The same company also imported a full-size theatrical machine and cakestand aimed at small cinema operations - there was one in my local library theatre, I discovered and is now with the PPT. I acquired one of a pair of the "portable" type, together with the Xenon power supply, as seen here. (The other machine, bereft of its power supply, got converted I think). I seem to recall I did have the stand, but didn't use it as I needed all my projectors to be moveable - it's on a wheeled stand in these pix - but not the splicer or rewinds. (Curiously, I did acquire a splicer and rewinds, in a completely separate transaction, a year or two later; the splicer was an obvious rip-off of the CIR. I later had it converted to 28mm. The rewinds, bench-edge-mounting type, are still in use).

The problem for me was that it only took 2000ft spools, making running anything longer than two reels a chore, so in the end it had to go. However, it was a beaut bit of kit, good old-style engineering and few belts. It did leak oil from the intermittent gearbox tho'. I have seen variants on it at Argenteuil (last 2 pics above).

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Some leaflets I found at Argenteuil, proving 35mm machines do not need to be huge and requiring a crane.

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Although some do - also from Argenteuil 2009.

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My 35mm Ciniola.

Now here's something I would bet good money that few of you have ever seen. Quite what it's for I dunno - it's like an Acmiola/Cineola, but with a prism to project the image onto a screen. The only way I can see it scoring over the others is that (I think) it has a shutter.

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A lovely-looking semi-toy 35, a Butcher-HoughtonEmpire A, courtesy of Trevor Adams in NZ. I assume it is the

one in the pic in the ad, but the ad is not clear enough.

David Richardson has come up with some fascinating stuff on old Empires.

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Chris Bird has sent pix of a rather substantial-looking "toy" 35mm machine. It has a beater mech and only a single sprocket, ie no feed sprocket, which I suppose really keeps it from being anything more than a toy. It also had a box with a pic, which so intrigued me that I spent some time prettying it up.

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Trevor Adams has sent these pix of a Keystone Moviegraph and a cheaper model, the Flashlight.

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Blurb for a Kinox is of unknown date. Of note are the poor grammar and the side-swipe at machines that have a dynamo, as well as the insistence on absolute safety. Could both of these last two be references to the KOK? As indeed could be references to enclosed gears.

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Some pictures, courtesy Don Sykes. The Toy is called an AK I think; the other is of course a (particularly beautiful)

Krupp Ernemann Kinox. I have one the same, but far less good nick and with a few bits missing that I have had to fabricate.

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Mine does not look half as pretty.

In the 1980's, it must have been, I acquired it from Steve Siddaway (Hi Steve). He explained to me the lack of various bits eg lamphouse, lens, shutter, handle etc and, being cocky, I suppose, I took it. I finally finished it to the point of usability a couple of years ago. Apart from all the bits just mentioned, I had to devise a way of securing the spool arms inside the case, 'cos otherwise they rattled around something cruel when transporting. I also found it necessary to fit a "stripper" plate below the intermittent to prevent the film looping back and catching the sprocket. Now I have finally gotten around to taking some pix. Note the lens is AWOL; the lid hits it when you try to put it on, so it ends up stored elsewhere. The lamphouse is, I hope, reasonably professional-looking; aficionados will note a generic likeness to the PathBaby lamphouse. As you can see, the lid survived less well than the machine (by doing its job, I suppose, and protecting the machine), but I have been reluctant to over-paint even the very faded name.

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These are a Pathmech and 3 shots of a Monopol mech from 1914.

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This is a pretty modern cinema machine, a Meopta with trendy, up-to-date red light sound reading. Except it

now seems that, like all the rest, it will soon be confined to museums.

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I suppose as this is called a professional I have to put it in 35, not toys.

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Milinia Eden has sent these pix of various 35mm mechs, including a Powers Cameragraph No. 5

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Thanks to Pete Diggle, who has sent in this pic of an early (1917ish) 35mm and some pages from what looks to be a fascinating book.

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A beyootiful Powers 35mm machine spotted by Chris Bird in Nov 2013.

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Projectors at Auction from a Christies sale.

35mm-pix1. Projection mechanism
35mm., metal-body, with hand-crank and shutter;

35mm-pix2.Reliance Animatograph 1904 model
R. W. Paul, 68 High Holborn, London; 35mm., powder-coated cast iron, brass fittings, hand-cranked projection mechanism, Paul intermittent movement.

35mm-pix3.Empire No. 1 projection mechanism
W. Butcher & Sons, Farringdon Avenue, London; 35mm., black painted cast iron chassis, lacquered brass flywheel and sprocket drums, beater movement, top spool arm, lacks bottom spool arm

35mm-pix4. Empire No. 2 Maltese Cross projection mechanism
W. Butcher & Sons, Farringdon Avenue, London; 35mm., black painted cast iron chassis with brass mechanical components, maltese cross movement, electric light lamphouse and bulb, top and bottom spool arms, 4 inch projection lens

35mm-pix5. Empire Cinematograph model A. W. Butcher and Sons Ltd., London; 35mm., cast iron base with nickel plated brass fittings, maker's plate, external single-bladed shutter, intermittent movement, hand-cranked mechanism, 3 inch lens, electric lamp, black painted metal lid, cylinder form resistance

35mm-pix6.Projection mechanism Wescoscope; 35mm., cast iron and brass projection mechanism mounted on mahogany base, hand-cranked beater movement, electrically illuminated, lower spool arm, battery holder, pilot lamp, brass bound lens. The Wescoscope is not referred to in the Ariel Register or other specialist literature

35mm-pix7. Kinox Projector. Krupp-Ernemann, Dresden; 35mm., black-painted metal casting on wooden base with black-painted metal arched lid, gate stamped no. 904090, hand-cranked mechanism with double claw action, electric lamp, an Ernemann Werke Pro-anastigmat 6cm. lens no. 87866. I've got one of these somewhere.

35mm-pix8. The Ruby projector no. 270. Thornton-Pickard Mfg. Co. Ltd., Altrincham, England; 16mm., cast alloy body with black crackle finish, external enclosed shutter positioned after the lens, mechanism driven by external electric motor stamped NORTH EAST ELECTRIC CO., ROCHESTER N.Y., electric light, the manufacturer's fitted case housing a resistance with variable speed control and compartment with two spools, film rewinding by hand crank, a Dallmeyer f/1.9 2 inch projection lens no. 122078.

Rendell states: 'In 1927 there was a review in the photographic press of the Ruby 16mm. cine camera and projector in which it was stated that it had been manufactured by TP...but no information has yet been found'. Amateur Photographer stated that the camera and its associated projector 'hold a deservedly high place amongst apparatus of the kind'. The only known example of the camera was sold at Christie's on 30 July 1992, lot 43. This is one of only two known projectors.

Gerald McKee (1989) The Home Cinema: Classic Home Movie Projectors 1922-1940 p.99
Douglas Rendell, 'The Thornton-Pickard Story' in British Journal of Photography, 13 January 1984, p. 34.
Amateur Photographer, 23 November, 1927, p. 525.

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9. PLUS model C projector no. 2825
Paris-London Universal-Studios; 16mm., suitcase-style projector, claw movement, electrically driven motor with resistance, black, red and gold illustrated makers label and instructions for use pasted to the inside of the case, a Dallmeyer 2 inch projection lens no. 295198. The P.L.U.S. is not referred to in the Ariel Register or other specialist literature.

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Newman & Sinclair, London; 35mm., lacquered brass fittings on a cast iron base with maker's plate PATENT NO. 23958

35mm-pix11. 22mm. and 17.5mm. equipment. Usines Gallus, Courbevoie; Cinloc 22mm. projector, black-painted alloy body on steel cone-shaped stand, one 22mm. spool, electrically powered, a Faliez Foyer Siamor 40mm. projection lens; a PathFres 17.5mm. motocamera no. R00935, spring-wound, with a Krauss Trianar f/3 2.5cm. lens no. 276472. http://www.xs4all.nl/~wichm/filmsize.html#OTHER.
Ariel (1981), Cinematographica Register, no. 1034

The Cinloc projector is not mentioned in the Ariel Register. 22mm. Ozaphan cellophane film was produced in 1922 with a conventional layout of a row of peforations each side of the image. It seems to have had a very short-lived existence. The gauge differs considerably from Edison's 22mm. Home Kinetoscope film, which positioned three strips of images and two central perforations across its width.

The 17.5mm. gauge, also with two rows of perforations at the edges of the film, was launched by Pathin 1926 and achieved only limited success.

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